The development history of lithium-ion batteries

This chapter introduces the development history of lithium-ion batteries
Lithium is an alkali metal with a relative atomic mass of 6.941, a melting point of 181.5°C, and a density of 0.53 g/cm3. Since lithium is a very light element and the electrode potential is very low (compared to a standard hydrogen electrode of -3.04V), the lithium-ion battery system theoretically has the largest energy density.
The development history of lithium-ion batteries began in the 1950s. Due to the outbreak of the oil crisis, people were forced to find new alternative energy sources. Among the many metal elements, metal lithium is the lightest, the lowest redox potential, and the highest mass energy density, so it has long attracted great attention from chemical power workers. In 1958, a graduate student at the University of California in the United States first proposed the idea of ​​using active metals such as lithium and sodium as the negative electrode. Since then, researchers have begun to engage in research in this area. In 1962, Chilton Jr. and Cook of the US military put forward the idea of ​​”lithium non-aqueous electrolyte system”. In 1970, Exxon’s Whittingham M.S. used titanium sulfide as the positive electrode material and metallic lithium as the negative electrode material to make the first lithium battery. In 1980, Goodenough J. proposed lithium oxide as a cathode material for lithium-ion batteries, unveiling the embryonic form of lithium-ion batteries. In 1985, it was discovered that carbon materials can be used as the negative electrode material of lithium rechargeable batteries. Lithium-ion batteries were invented. In 1986, the original design of lithium-ion batteries was completed and the commercialization of Li//MoS2 rechargeable batteries was realized. However, the battery was introduced in 1989. A fire accident led to the termination of the rechargeable battery. It was not until 1991 that Sony released the first commercial lithium-ion battery. The carbon material is used as the negative electrode, and the lithium-containing compound is used as the positive electrode, and the concept of “rocking chair battery” is proposed. So far, lithium-ion batteries have begun large-scale commercial applications, and they have also revolutionized the appearance of electronic products.

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